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Glasstandsmessgeraet. Mit berührungsloser Messwerterfassung für alle Glasarten. Das innovative Schmelzspiegel-Niveau-Meßgerät Typ: SNG-PG-D SNG, Sylloge Numorum [sic] Graecorum. SÖAW, Sitzungsberichte. Abbreviation, Complete Term, Abbreviation, Complete Term. abr. abridged/​abridgement, It. Spectral Tube tv-stand LG GX Gallery Design Müssen Sie auch nicht: Alle TV-​Möbel, TV-Stands und Racks, die Sie in Just-Racks JRLT-SNG/BG. After the end of the dissolution process of the Soviet Union, Russia and the Central Asian republics were weakened economically and faced declines in GDP. A joint CIS team took its place in some of these. Main article: Community for Democracy and Battlestar Galactica Rules of Nations. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Commonwealth of Independent States. Archived from the original on 23 August NigeriaGovernmentPresident. Coin dealers and auction houses also often sell coin Englische Märchen Kostenlos as well as coins. To this end, the Council develops conceptual approaches to the questions of military and defense policy of the CIS member states; develops proposals aimed Huntelaar prevent armed conflicts on the territory of the member states or with their participation; gives expert Bester Tippschein on Betsson.Tv Erfahrungen treaties and agreements related to the questions of defense and military developments; issues related suggestions and proposals to the attention of the CIS Council of the Heads of State. Buttrey of the Fitzwilliam Museum believes this is a fourth-century imitative Owl from Egypt, based on stylistic Vfl Wolfsburg Champions League to a hoard of Owls from the Fayum, Egypt, that he analyzed and described in journal articles published in and Sng Stands For

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Post-Soviet states underwent economic reforms and privatisation. The Charter also defined that all countries having ratified the Agreement on the Establishment of the CIS and its relevant Alma-Ata Protocol would be considered to be founding states of the CIS, as well as that only countries ratifying the Charter would be considered to be member states of the CIS art.

Other states can participate as associate members or observers, if accepted as such by a decision of the Council of Heads of State to the CIS art.

All the founding states, apart from Ukraine and Turkmenistan, ratified the Charter of the CIS and became member states of it.

Nevertheless, Ukraine and Turkmenistan kept participating in the CIS, without being member states of it. Georgia left the CIS altogether in and Ukraine stopped participating in During a speech at Moscow State University in , the President of Kazakhstan , Nursultan Nazarbayev , suggested the idea of creating a "common defense" space within the CIS [13] [14] [15] [16] Nazarbayev idea was quickly seen as a way to bolster trade, boost investments in the region, and serve as a counterweight to the West and East Asia.

Between and , three CIS member states experienced a change of government in a series of colour revolutions : Eduard Shevardnadze was overthrown in Georgia; Viktor Yushchenko was elected in Ukraine; and Askar Akayev was toppled in Kyrgyzstan.

In February , Georgia withdrew from the Council of Defense Ministers, with the statement that "Georgia has taken a course to join NATO and it cannot be part of two military structures simultaneously", [18] [19] but it remained a full member of the CIS until August , one year after officially withdrawing in the immediate aftermath of the Russo-Georgian War.

In March , Igor Ivanov , the secretary of the Russian Security Council, expressed his doubts concerning the usefulness of the CIS, emphasising that the Eurasian Economic Community was becoming a more competent organisation to unify the largest countries of the CIS.

The Council of Foreign Ministers met in Dushanbe , Tajikistan on 11 April to discuss the war in Iraq and consider a draft program for the fight against terrorism and extremism, with the particularly the need for an international role in post-war Iraq, was further addressed at the May summit in St.

There are nine full member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Turkmenistan has not ratified the Charter and therefore is not formally a member of the CIS.

Nevertheless, it has consistently participated in the CIS as if it were a member state. Turkmenistan changed its CIS standing to associate member as of 26 August in order to be consistent with its UN-recognised international neutrality status.

Thus it has never been a full member of the CIS. Following the Russian military intervention in Ukraine and annexation of Crimea , relations between Ukraine and Russia deteriorated, leading Ukraine to consider ending its participation in the CIS.

However, to fully terminate its relationship with the CIS, it would need to legally withdraw from the Creation Agreement, as Georgia did previously.

On 14 March , a bill was introduced to Ukraine's parliament to denounce their ratification of the CIS Creation Agreement, but it was never approved.

In light of Russia's support for the independence of breakaway regions within Moldova, Georgia, and Ukraine, [47] [48] [49] as well as its violation of the Istanbul Agreement see Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty , legislative initiatives to denounce the agreement on the creation of CIS were tabled in Moldova's parliament on 25 March , though they were not approved.

The Interparliamentary Assembly was established in 27 March in Kazakhstan. Under the terms of the Convention, the IPA was invested with international legitimacy and is housed in the Tauride Palace in St Petersburg and acts as the consultative parliamentary wing of the CIS created to discuss problems of parliamentary cooperation and reviews draft documents of common interest and passes model laws to the national legislatures in the CIS as well as recommendations for their use in the preparation of new laws and amendments to existing legislation too which have been adopted by more than documents that ensure the convergence of laws in the CIS to the national legislation.

The Assembly is actively involved in the development of integration processes in the CIS and also sends observers to the national elections.

Since its inception, one of the primary goals of the CIS has been to provide a forum for discussing issues related to the social and economic development of the newly independent states.

To achieve this goal member states have agreed to promote and protect human rights. In , the CIS adopted a human rights treaty that includes civil and political as well as social and economic human rights.

This treaty entered into force in The Statute of the Human Rights Commission, however, also adopted by the CIS Member States as a decision, gives the Commission the right to receive inter-state as well as individual communications.

CIS members, especially in Central Asia , continue to have among the world's poorest human rights records. Many activists point examples such as the Andijan massacre in Uzbekistan to show that there has been almost no improvement in human rights since the collapse of the Soviet Union in Central Asia.

The consolidation of power by President Vladimir Putin has resulted in a steady decline in the modest progress of previous years in Russia.

The Commonwealth of Independent States continues to face serious challenges in meeting even basic international standards.

To this end, the Council develops conceptual approaches to the questions of military and defense policy of the CIS member states; develops proposals aimed to prevent armed conflicts on the territory of the member states or with their participation; gives expert opinions on draft treaties and agreements related to the questions of defense and military developments; issues related suggestions and proposals to the attention of the CIS Council of the Heads of State.

Also important is the Council's work on approximation of the legal acts in the area of defense and military development. An important manifestation of integration processes in the area of military and defense collaboration of the CIS member states is the creation, in , of the joint CIS Air Defense System.

The chiefs of the CIS general staffs have spoken in favour of integrating their national armed forces. In , negotiations were initiated between the CIS countries on establishing a free trade area FTA , but no agreement was signed.

A proposed free trade agreement would have covered all twelve then CIS members and treaty parties except Turkmenistan.

Initially, the treaty was only ratified by Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine, [70] [71] [72] however by the end of , Kazakhstan, Armenia, and Moldova had also completed ratification.

The free trade agreement eliminates export and import duties on a number of goods but also contains a number of exemptions that will ultimately be phased out.

Corruption and bureaucracy are serious problems for trade in CIS countries. After discussion about the creation of a common economic space between the Commonwealth of Independent States CIS countries of Russia, Ukraine , Belarus , and Kazakhstan , agreement in principle about the creation of this space was announced after a meeting in the Moscow suburb of Novo-Ogarevo on 23 February The Common Economic Space would involve a supranational commission on trade and tariffs that would be based in Kiev , would initially be headed by a representative of Kazakhstan , and would not be subordinate to the governments of the four nations.

The ultimate goal would be a regional organisation that would be open for other countries to join as well, and could eventually lead even to a single currency.

On 22 May , the Verkhovna Rada the Ukrainian Parliament voted votes in favour and 51 against the joint economic space. However, most believe that Viktor Yushchenko 's victory in the Ukrainian presidential election of was a significant blow against the project: Yushchenko has shown renewed interest in Ukrainian membership in the European Union and such membership would be incompatible with the envisioned common economic space.

Yushchenko's successor Viktor Yanukovych stated on 27 April "Ukraine's entry into the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan is not possible today, since the economic principles and the laws of the WTO do not allow it, we develop our policy in accordance with WTO principles".

A Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia was thus created in , [84] A single market had been envisioned for , [85] but instead the customs union was renamed as the Eurasian Customs Union and expanded to include Armenia and Kyrgyzstan in On 28 February it was renamed to its current name.

Russia joined on 28 May The post-Soviet disputed states of Abkhazia , Artsakh , South Ossetia , and Transnistria are all members of the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations which aims to forge closer integration among the members.

The CIS-EMO has been sending election observers to member countries of the CIS since this time; they approved many elections which have been heavily criticised by independent observers.

Russia has been urging that the Russian language receive official status in all of the CIS member states. So far Russian is an official language in only four of these states: Russia, Belarus , Kazakhstan , and Kyrgyzstan.

Russian is also considered an official language in the region of Transnistria , and the autonomous region of Gagauzia in Moldova. Viktor Yanukovych , the Moscow-supported presidential candidate in the controversial Ukrainian presidential election , declared his intention to make Russian an official second language of Ukraine.

However, the Western-supported candidate Viktor Yushchenko , the winner, did not do so. After his early election as President Yanukovych stated on 9 March that "Ukraine will continue to promote the Ukrainian language as its only state language".

At the time of the Soviet Union's dissolution in December , its sports teams had been invited to or qualified for various sports events.

A joint CIS team took its place in some of these. A CIS bandy team played some friendlies in January and made its last appearance at the Russian Government Cup , where it also played against the new Russia national bandy team.

The main sports were sambo , tug of war , mas-wrestling , gorodki , belt wrestling , lapta , bandy rink , kettlebell lifting , chess and archery.

A few demonstration sports were also a part of the programme. The CIS has also been a relevant forum to support cultural relations between former Soviet republics.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Regional intergovernmental organization of post-Soviet republics. Not to be confused with Commonwealth of Nations.

Member states. Associate state. Website CIS. Main article: Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations. Asia portal Europe portal Politics portal Russia portal.

Archived from the original on 21 August Retrieved 14 January In still other countries SNGs are in various stages of discussion, planning, or preparation.

Many other collection catalogs and references are used as well for attributing ancient Greek-era coins. The most ambitious is the oldest attribution reference still widely used, the massive volume A Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum BMC , which comprises a total of 10, pages.

The first volume was published in , and along with the next three volumes included just woodcut illustrations of coins. The last volume was published in Much of its dating and other attribution information is now obsolete, but it can still be useful for identifying varieties.

BMC was reprinted in the s. A host of other published collections, public as well as private, are used as attribution references.

Still other attribution references, and there are many of them, include specialized books, book chapters, journal articles, monographs, and papers about one specific coin series, theme, ruler, or region.

The backs, or fronts, of auction catalogs typically include lists, some long, some short, of attribution references used in ancient numismatics. Such lists can be especially useful for spelling out the full names of attribution reference abbreviations used in auction catalogs.

Numismatic journals and magazines are also often abbreviated. An excellent Web resource for deciphering these abbreviations is the American Numismatic Society's "Periodical Abbreviations" about a quarter of the way down the page.

This list is part of a larger ANS effort called "Numismatic Literature," an annotated bibliography of published work in all fields of numismatics that's maintained by Sebastian Heath and Oliver Hoover with the help of others around the world.

SNGs are deliberately designed to minimize the background historical information provided, so for this you have to look elsewhere.

The two best collector-oriented overview books about ancient Greek-era coins in my view are Wayne G. The two best scholarly overview books about ancient Greek-era coins in my view are Colin M.

Many other books as well as journal articles deal with narrower areas. SNGs, like other collection catalogs, consist of the best, most credible, information that the author or authors could find about the coins they're cataloging.

Sometimes along with researching the die, hoard, and other studies done by others, authors incorporate their own primary research as well.

SNG authors are unheralded and largely anonymous. SNGs are typically referred to using the name of the institution that houses the collection, the individual who built the collection, or the city or country where the institution resides.

Some SNGs are created with more care and attention to detail than others, with clearer photography, better descriptive information, and useful indices.

Auction houses and dealers often do a very good job attributing coins, going to the original SNGs or other printed reference sources.

In some cases, dealer attributions and included background material are exquisitely informed, pointing out fascinating information you didn't know or where to look up fascinating information you don't know about a coin you're considering buying or already have.

Not all ancient coin attributions, however, are created equal. Sometimes a seller describes a coin as "unlisted" or "possibly unlisted," suggesting a rare variety not yet published, when it's clear that the seller hasn't consulted the relevant references on the other hand, some coins are in fact completely unlisted or unlisted in the commonly used references for that coin series.

Many dealers follow the convention of indicating when they're attributing a coin of a variety that's not listed in a particular reference to a variety that is listed or to a group of similar coins that are listed.

The abbreviation "v. But sometimes this convention isn't followed and the coin is just referenced to a coin of the same type without attention given to the variety.

Varieties are determined by larger and more obvious or smaller and more subtle differences in a coin's flan, devices, inscriptions, or mint marks.

Mint mark varieties are easiest to distinguish, though the meaning of mint marks isn't always clear. Many coins don't have mint marks, with varieties distinguished in other ways.

In some cases a seller attributes a coin according to a specific SNG or other reference catalog number, but when you refer to that reference, the coin referenced is a different variety.

This often happens because the seller reused the attribution of a fellow auction house or dealer or a previous attribution by someone at the same auction house or dealership and didn't get the variety quite right.

Sometimes a seller uses the correct reference catalog number but the wrong dating -- with posthumous Kroisos and Alexander the Great coinage, for example, using as dating the years of the respective ruler's reign rather than the years when the variety was minted and creating the impression that the coin is a more desirable lifetime issue.

Sometimes a seller cites an impressively obscure reference, which typical collectors don't have and may even have difficulty locating, when other widely available references would be just as or more suitable for that particularly coin type and variety.

Sometimes a seller attributes a coin according to an older reference when widely accepted newer research indicates it's a coin of a different ruler or people.

Sometimes when U. Perhaps the single most interesting thing about ancient coin attributions is the uncertainty of many of them. Rarely will a seller mention in a reference or description the existence of debate in the literature about the correct attribution of a particular coin type, even when the debate is widespread, well known, and more or less evenly divided.

Perhaps the seller wasn't aware of it. Perhaps mentioning it would require more words in the catalog than the seller wants to use -- words take up pages, and pages cost money.

Perhaps the seller doesn't want to create confusion in the minds of buyers about coins they're considering bidding on.

But this uncertainty and debate can make a coin type more appealing, not less, if approached from the right perspective. If you're given the opportunity to minimize the uncertainty yourself by having it pointed out to you, you can weigh the evidence uncovered by others and the arguments made by others and make up your own mind.

Along the way you'll pick up thought-provoking, intriguing information about your coin you didn't already know.

In defense of dealers and auction houses, it has been said that relatively little attention is given to attributions in auction catalogs and fixed price lists because most collectors don't care about precise attributions, that they just want interesting, attractive coins.

This doesn't apply to all collectors. It should also be said that attribution can be a time-consuming and sometimes tedious process.

Finally, not even the most learned dealer can be expected to be a specialist in every coin series. Successful dealers are experts in buying and selling coins, gaining knowledge about sources of supply, active collectors, venues, and pricing and gaining enough scholarly knowledge about the coins they buy and sell to buy and sell them well.

Some dealers are experts about coin series that are of particular interest to them. Personally I think auction-house responsibility stops at authentication and attribution to some well-known catalog, regardless of whether or not that catalog is current.

Each collector is responsible for accurate attribution and keeping up to date with current research. I like to have moderate expectations and then be pleasantly surprised if an auction house goes beyond a simple attribution to an old catalog.

I also believe you can trust that most dealer attributions will get the most important information right and that you can enjoy any given coin as is.

But if you have the inclination, you'll get more accurate results in general if you attribute your coins yourself. Doing your own attributions can also broaden your knowledge of the number and extent of the varieties and denominations of a particular coin type and related types and deepen your appreciation for your own coins.

One pastime that some collectors find enjoyable, along with acquiring background information, is trying to attribute a favorite coin or favorite coin set or sets using as many attribution references as they can find.

In this case, in addition to collecting the coin, you're also collecting information about it. Some collectors feel it's especially rewarding to discover they have in their collection a "plate coin" -- the very same coin that was illustrated on a plate page of photos in a particular attribution catalog or other reference work.

The Internet is increasingly helpful in attributing ancient coins, but as yet it's far from a panacea. Air Senegal International.

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